Crystal Meth: What Medication Is Commonly Used to Control Hyperactivity?

Question by anti_sweetz: what medication is commonly used to control hyperactivity?
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Answer by stephen1424
Treatment
There are many options available to treat people diagnosed with ADHD. The options with the greatest scientific support include a variety of medications, behavior modification, and educational interventions. The results of a large randomized controlled trial[32][33] suggested that medication alone is superior to behavioral therapy alone, but that the combination of behavioral therapy and medication has a small additional benefit over medication alone.

[edit] Mainstream treatments
The most frequently prescribed medications for ADHD are stimulants, which work by stimulating the areas of the brain responsible for focus, attention, and impulse control. The use of stimulants to treat a syndrome often characterized by hyperactivity is sometimes referred to as a paradoxical effect. But there is no real paradox in that stimulants activate brain inhibitory and self-organizing mechanisms permitting the individual to have greater self-regulation. Frequently prescribed stimulants are Methylphenidate (better known by the names Ritalin and Concerta), Amphetamines (Adderall) and dextroamphetamines (Dexedrine). A fourth stimulant, Cylert was used until the late 1980s when it was discovered that this medication could cause liver damage. In March 2005, the makers of Cylert announced that it would discontinue the medication’s production. It is no longer available in the United States. More recently, the US FDA approved the use of methanthetamine, commonly a street drug called “crystal meth” as an ADHD treatment.

There are also several nonstimulant medications that are used either by themselves or in conjunction with the stimulants. Most prominent among these are Bupropion (Wellbutrin) and Atomoxetine (Strattera).

Because many of the medications used to treat ADHD are Schedule II under the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration schedule system, and are considered powerful stimulants with a potential for abuse, there is controversy surrounding prescribing these drugs for children and adolescents. However, research studying ADHD sufferers who either receive treatment with stimulants or go untreated has indicated that those treated with stimulants are in fact much less likely to abuse any substance than ADHD sufferers who are not treated with stimulants.[34]

Also, medications have been disputed for the facts that they are extremley strong and start stange changes in behavior. ADHD medications have often been noted as the “sit down and shut up” medications, for the reasons that they do just that. ADHD medications have been shown to shut down various areas of the brain, which causes people under the influence of these medications to act just like droids. Parents whom give these medications have been disputed as “unfit” by some, because they are feeding their child a Schedule II medication. They are also called this as the fact that they cannot deal with their child’s behavior, and they give him or her pills to quiet them. The Psychiatric community is also being criticised for creating a fake disease to “help” parents by making them “think” that their child has a disease. The validity of ADHD is currently unkown.

See Also: List of prescription medications for ADHD

Only recently, studies on the cost-effectiveness of ADHD treatment have begun to appear. To date valid information is limited, although a review presented at the 17th World Congress of the International Association for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry and Allied Professions(IACAPAP) in Melbourne, Victoria, September 10-14, 2006, identified 11 health technology assessments and cost-effectiveness analyses, all of which compared the economic merits of at least two treatment alternatives.[35]

[edit] Alternative treatments
Many alternative treatments have been proposed for ADHD. An example would be the homeopathic treatment “attend”. There are few or no credible scientific studies to support these suggested interventions.

[edit] Nutrition
As noted above there are indications that children with ADHD are metabolically different from others,[36][37][38] and it has therefore been suggested that diet modification may play a role in the management of ADHD. Perhaps the best known of the dietary alternatives is the Feingold diet which involves removing salicylates, artificial colors and flavors, and certain synthetic preservatives from children’s diets.[39] In the 1980s vitamin B6 was promoted as a helpful remedy for children with learning difficulties including inattentiveness. Later, zinc and multivitamins have been promoted as cures, and currently the addition of certain fatty acids such as omega-3 has been proposed as beneficial.[40][41]

For some people with ADHD mild stimulants such as caffeine and theobromine have similar effects to the more powerful drugs commonly used in treating the disorder. Herbal supplements such as ginkgo biloba are also sometimes cited. There is some empirical data suggesting caffeine can improve the function of children suffering from ADHD.[42][43]

[edit] Other alternatives
Audio-visual entrainment uses light and sound stimulation to guide and change brainwave patterns.[44] While safe for most, it cannot be used by those suffering from photosensitive epilepsy due to the risk of triggering a seizure.

Cerebellar stimulation assumes that by improving the patient’s cerebellar function, many ADHD symptoms can be reduced or even eliminated permanently. As noted above, several studies have shown that the cerebellums of children with ADHD are notably smaller than their non-ADHD counterparts. Several programs of balance, coordination, eye and sensory exercises that specifically involve the functions of the cerebellum are used to treat ADHD, Asperger’s syndrome, and many learning difficulties such as dyslexia and dyspraxia. Most prominent are the DORE program,[45] the Learning Breakthrough Program, and the Brain Gym. No substantial body of research exists to support these treatment approaches.

Finally, a study by the University of Pennsylvania Cancer Center has shown that people who suffer from ADD or ADHD may be more likely to start smoking. The study’s author suggest that this may be true because patients use the nicotine in cigarettes as a form of treatment for ADD symptoms.[46]

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